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The genus Glaucomys (New World flying squirrels) is currently considered to be comprised of 2 species, the northern flying squirrel (G. sabrinus) and the southern flying squirrel (G. volans). We synthesize new information from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences and microsatellite data to demonstrate that the genus consists of 3, rather than 2 species, and that Glaucomys sabrinus, as currently recognized, is actually composed of 2 separate, apparently non-hybridizing species. Control region mtDNA data from 185 individuals across North America revealed 2 distinct clades embedded within G. sabrinus: a widespread “Continental” lineage and a more geographically restricted “Pacific Coastal” lineage. The geographic distributions of these 2 lineages are largely mutually exclusive, with sympatry observed at only 3 sites in the Pacific Northwest. Analysis of 8 microsatellite loci showed no evidence of hybridization between the 2 lineages of G. sabrinusin the region of sympatry. This lack of gene flow is noteworthy given that populations of the Continental lineage of G. sabrinus have been shown to hybridize with G. volans in southeastern Canada. Finally, phylogenetic analyses and estimates of divergence...

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